04 July 2013

Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-year age range: the Global Lung Function 2012 equations

Posted in Pulmonary Function Test, Scientific


A new study was published presenting the work of the Global Lung Initiative (GLI) Task Force on multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-year age range

The aim of the Task Force was to derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. As the Task Force explains "Until recently it was not possible to satisfactorily describe the age-related growth and decline of lung function with age. As a result a piece-meal approach was adopted, which entailed deriving prediction equations for a limited age range. Inevitably they connected poorly at the transition from one to the next age. Also the modelling usually left something to be desired because skewness and age-related scatter were not properly addressed."

The GLI reference values are the first global multi-ethnic reference equations for spirometry that span all-ages and it represents a significant breakthrough in spirometry. All portable spirometers from COSMED (microQuark, Pony FX, Spiropalm) are equipped with the new software Omnia that includes the latest GLI predicteds. Omnia software complies also to other Global Lung Initiative guidelines including the measurement of Z Score, the use of pictograms, quality control and no use of extrapolation. 

The study has been endorsed by the European Respiratory Society, American Thoracic Society, Australian and New Zealand Society of Respiratory Science, Asian Pacific Society for Respirology, the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand, and the American College of Chest Physicians. 

The article details are the following:

- Title: "Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-yr age range: the global lung function 2012 equations"
- Authors
: Quanjer PH, Stanojevic S, Cole TJ, Baur X, Hall GL, Culver BH, Enright PL, Hankinson JL, Ip MS, Zheng J, Stocks J - ERS Global Lung Function Initiative.
- Published in
: European Respiratory Journal 2012 Dec;40(6):1324-43

The scientific article can be downloaded at the following link: click here


Founded in 1980, COSMED is a privately owned company manufacturing Cardio Pulmonary and Metabolic Diagnostic Equipment. COSMED products include a full range of Spirometers, Pulmonary Function, Body Composition, Nutritional Assessment and Cardio Pulmonary Exercise systems, including Electrocardiographs, Ergometers and Assessment Software. COSMED solutions are aimed for either professional or medical use for many different applications like: Hospital, Clinics, Primary Care, University & Education in Human Physiology, Clinical Nutrition, Commercial Weight Management, Human Performance Centers, Sport Institutions and Health Club Industry. COSMED Headquarters are located in the province of Rome, Italy. COSMED has subsidiaries in the USA, China and Germany, and distributes its products internationally through a constantly growing distributor network covering more than 70 countries.