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Scientific News

A selection of scientific articles on Cardio Pulmonary, Lung Function, Metabolism and Body Composition

Reference values for Lung Clearance Index (LCI) derived from sulphur hexafluoride multiple breath washout testing

10 November 2020
A new study was published on ERS (European Respiratory Society) Journal to provide LCI (Lung Clearance Index) reference values in pulmonary healthy adults. Lung clearance index (LCI) is the most commonly used MBW outcome parameter but normative data is scarce. LCI was derived from triplicate MBW measurements based on Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)...

Neonatal Adiposity and Childhood Obesity

02 October 2020
The study wants to explore the longitudinal association of neonatal adiposity (fat mass percentage) with BMI trajectories and childhood overweight and obesity from ages 2 to 6 years. METHODS: We studied 979 children from the Healthy Start cohort. Air displacement plethysmography was used to estimate fat mass percentage. Child weight and recum...

A longitudinal study of the effects of age, sex and race on body composition in chronic kidney disease

27 September 2020
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by accelerated aging, but the age-related changes in body composition and its modification by sex and race are unclear. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 516 patients with CKD and 45 healthy controls and serially measured body composition using air-displacement plethysmography for up to 6 years. M...

Association Between Fat Mass in Early Life and Later Fat Mass Trajectories

20 September 2020
In this study, only the change in FM% in the first 6 months of life was associated with more adiposity at age 2 years. Infants with a rapid increase in FM% had higher trajectories of FM% and FM index during the first 2 years of life. These findings appear to support a critical window for adiposity programming in early life. Question  Is a rapid...

Practical guidance for the use of Indirect Calorimetry during COVID 19 pandemic

10 September 2020
The purpose of this methodology paper is to provide practical guidance to health professionals to perform this measurement safely, using various metabolic monitors. Indirect calorimetry is the best tool to assess resting energy expenditure in critically ill patients and ESPEN as well as ASPEN societies recommend its use. Nevertheless, the use ...

Indirect Calorimetry: the 6 main issues

10 September 2020
A new paper on Clinical Nutrition focused on the decision-making process around IC application for prescription, and individual optimisation of nutritional therapy. Optimal nutritional therapy requires an individually adapted provision of energy as close as possible to patient's real energy expenditure (EE). Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the go...

Body Composition During Pregnancy Differs by Obesity Class

09 August 2020
The aim of this study is to characterize changes in body composition during pregnancy in women with obesity. METHODS: Fifty‐four healthy women with obesity (class 1, 30‐34.9 kg/m2: n = 25; class 2, 35‐39.9 kg/m2: n = 21; class 3, ≥ 40.0 kg/m2: n = 8) expecting a singleton pregnancy were studied. Body composition was measured in early pregnanc...

Technology innovations in delivering accurate nutrition

10 April 2019
This ICU Management & Practice article proposes "An overview of the key obstacles for the enforcement of nutritional guidelines and innovative approaches that can be used to overcome these obstacles." Authors outlines that one of the main pitfalls is the common use of predictive equations for targeting energy prescription. The equations hav...

ESPEN guideline on clinical nutrition in the intensive care unit

13 March 2019
The present guideline is an update and extension of the previous ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) in adult critically ill patients published in 2006 and 2009, respectively. Since then, the ESPEN methodology has been upgraded resulting in rigorous evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations. The bes...

Indirect calorimetry as point of care testing

13 March 2019
A new key paper on Clinical Nutrition focused on the decisive role of Indirect calorimetry (IC) in clinical settings. IC has been long recognized as the gold standard for assessing basal or resting energy expenditure (REE) and determining energy requirement is a fundamental of nutrition support, particularly in the situation where adjustment of...

Impact of the reduction of the recommended energy target in the ICU on protein delivery and clinical outcomes

24 February 2019
This observational cohort study over two 3 months periods aims to observe the impact of reduced recommended energy targets and the absence of ICU dietitians on nutrient prescription and clinical outcome. The most important result is that a reduction in energy target in ICU resulted in a predictable but unnoticed reduction of protein delivery. I...

Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Mortality in Healthy Men and Women

02 January 2019
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is the gold standard method for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF); Although CPX prognostic value has been firmly established in cardiovascular, pulmonary, and musculoskeletal disease patients, it is less established in apparently healthy adults. This study, published by the Journal of the American ...

Underdiagnosis and Overdiagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

15 November 2018
This Concise Clinical Review published on the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine examines the problem and the prevalence of under-diagnosis and over-diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. COPD is regarded as one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality across the world, yet its proper diagnosis remai...

Eliud Kipchoge sets new marathon world record

23 September 2018
Kenyan runner Eliud Kipchoge made history on September 16, by winning the Berlin Marathon in 2 hours 1 minute 39 seconds, confirming that is one of the best runner of the modern era. The Olympic champion broke the record set by fellow Kenyan Dennis Kimetto in 2014 by 1 minute and 18 seconds. After the race, Kipchoge, who also won in 2016 and 2...

Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing. What Is its Value?

25 June 2018
The role and the value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in cardiology has been examined in this review study on the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. This study discusses the modern key applications of CPET in CV diseases, with primary emphasis on HF, "starting from the principles that precipitate reduced exercise perform...

Body Composition Changes from Infancy to 4 Years and Associations with Early Childhood Cognition in Preterm and Full-Term Children

20 June 2018
A new study on the Neonatology Journal shows the relationship netween body composition at birth and in early childhood with risk for cognitive deficits. This scientific paper aim is to test the hypothesis that cognitive function, particularly memory and executive function, are associated with fat-free body mass accretion in preterm and not full...

Multiple breath washout: A new and promising lung function test for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

23 May 2018
The Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology focused on the multi-breath nitrogen washout test and its most important applications in Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The clinical properties of the Nitrogen Multi-breath washout test, which is a lung function test that measures ventilation inhomogeneity, a biomarker of small airwa...

Should we calculate or measure energy expenditure? Practical aspects in the ICU

12 May 2018
This review focuses on why indirect calorimetry should be used in clinical practice of critical care medicine and which are the benefits of using indirect calorimetry and which are the disadvantages of using predictive equation. Considering that "The energy prescription in critically ill patients requires precision and accuracy to avoid the del...

The Role of Gas Exchange Variables in Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing for Risk Stratification and Management of Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction

25 April 2018
A scientific review was made in the American Heart Journal examining 5 major gas exchange variables from CPET in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and its most commonly used ventilatory gas exchange variables for the purpose...

An Evaluation of Army Wellness Center Clients’ Health-Related Outcomes

13 March 2018
This new paper analyzes in detail the effectiveness of the Army Wellness Center (AWC) model as a health promotion program for US military. The Army Wellness Center (AWC) model was designed to deliver individual- and group-based health education services that promote and sustain healthy lifestyles and improve overall well-being among Army commun...

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