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Scientific News

A selection of scientific articles on Cardio Pulmonary, Lung Function, Metabolism and Body Composition

Medium-term impact of COVID-19 on pulmonary function, functional capacity and quality of life

26 February 2021
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide determining a dramatic impact on the healthcare system. Aim of this study is to evaluate mid-term clinical impact of COVID-19 on respiratory function. The respiratory system is subjected to major involvement during COVID-19 also due to the hyperactive host immune response and the inflam...

ESPEN guideline on clinical nutrition in hospitalized patients with acute or chronic kidney disease

12 February 2021
Acute kidney disease (AKD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are highly prevalent among hospitalized patients and they have important metabolic and nutritional consequences. Moreover, in case of kidney replacement therapy the possible impact on nutritional profiles, substrate balance, and nutritional treatment processes cannot be neglected. The ...

Pulmonary function and radiological features four months after COVID-19: first results from the national prospective observational Swiss COVID-19 lung study

27 January 2021
This is the first European study reporting on respiratory follow-up outcomes after SARS CoV-2 infection. In this study, reduced DLCO, decreased distance of 6MWT and desaturation during 6MWT were correlated to a severely impaired COVID-19 phenotype, and importantly this relationship was not confounded by age, sex, or BMI. This findings ...

Review of evolution and current status of protein requirements and provision in acute illness and critical care

10 January 2021
This review article summarizes current evidence supporting the role of higher protein intakes, especially during the early phases of nutrition therapy in acute illness, methods for assessing protein requirements, as well as, the currently available high-protein enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions.  There is sufficient evidence (albeit li...

Maximal Time Spent at VO2max from Sprint to the Marathon

20 December 2020
The study showed that VO2max is clearly elicited in all distances from the sprint to the marathon. A fast start and the time to reach VO2max is important in increasing VO2 kinetics and to improve exercise tolerance. The K5 portable breath-by-breath sampling system was used to measure VO2 and carry out the scientific study. Human locomotion natu...

In-vitro and in-vivo validation of Cosmed Q-box system

10 November 2020
A new validation study on Cosmed Q-box system including both in-vitro and in-vivo testing was published on ERS (European Respiratory Society) Journal. The usefulness of any diagnostic tool depends on the combination of accuracy, reproducibility and stability. The aim of this study was to conduct a validation of the COSMED Q-box system includin...

Reference values for Lung Clearance Index (LCI) derived from sulphur hexafluoride multiple breath washout testing

10 November 2020
A new study was published on ERS (European Respiratory Society) Journal to provide LCI (Lung Clearance Index) reference values in pulmonary healthy adults. Lung clearance index (LCI) is the most commonly used MBW outcome parameter but normative data is scarce. LCI was derived from triplicate MBW measurements based on Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)...

Neonatal Adiposity and Childhood Obesity

02 October 2020
The study wants to explore the longitudinal association of neonatal adiposity (fat mass percentage) with BMI trajectories and childhood overweight and obesity from ages 2 to 6 years. METHODS: We studied 979 children from the Healthy Start cohort. Air displacement plethysmography was used to estimate fat mass percentage. Child weight and recum...

A longitudinal study of the effects of age, sex and race on body composition in chronic kidney disease

27 September 2020
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by accelerated aging, but the age-related changes in body composition and its modification by sex and race are unclear. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 516 patients with CKD and 45 healthy controls and serially measured body composition using air-displacement plethysmography for up to 6 years. M...

Association Between Fat Mass in Early Life and Later Fat Mass Trajectories

20 September 2020
In this study, only the change in FM% in the first 6 months of life was associated with more adiposity at age 2 years. Infants with a rapid increase in FM% had higher trajectories of FM% and FM index during the first 2 years of life. These findings appear to support a critical window for adiposity programming in early life. Question   Is a rapi...

Practical guidance for the use of Indirect Calorimetry during COVID 19 pandemic

10 September 2020
The purpose of this methodology paper is to provide practical guidance to health professionals to perform this measurement safely, using various metabolic monitors. Indirect calorimetry is the best tool to assess resting energy expenditure in critically ill patients and ESPEN as well as ASPEN societies recommend its use. Nevertheless, the use ...

Indirect Calorimetry: the 6 main issues

10 September 2020
A new paper on Clinical Nutrition focused on the decision-making process around IC application for prescription, and individual optimisation of nutritional therapy. Optimal nutritional therapy requires an individually adapted provision of energy as close as possible to patient's real energy expenditure (EE). Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the go...

Body Composition During Pregnancy Differs by Obesity Class

09 August 2020
The aim of this study is to characterize changes in body composition during pregnancy in women with obesity. METHODS: Fifty‐four healthy women with obesity (class 1, 30‐34.9 kg/m2: n = 25; class 2, 35‐39.9 kg/m2: n = 21; class 3, ≥ 40.0 kg/m2: n = 8) expecting a singleton pregnancy were studied. Body composition was measured in early pregnanc...

Technology innovations in delivering accurate nutrition

10 April 2019
This ICU Management & Practice article proposes "An overview of the key obstacles for the enforcement of nutritional guidelines and innovative approaches that can be used to overcome these obstacles." Authors outlines that one of the main pitfalls is the common use of predictive equations for targeting energy prescription. The equations hav...

ESPEN guideline on clinical nutrition in the intensive care unit

13 March 2019
The present guideline is an update and extension of the previous ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) in adult critically ill patients published in 2006 and 2009, respectively. Since then, the ESPEN methodology has been upgraded resulting in rigorous evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations. The bes...

Indirect calorimetry as point of care testing

13 March 2019
A new key paper on Clinical Nutrition focused on the decisive role of Indirect calorimetry (IC) in clinical settings. IC has been long recognized as the gold standard for assessing basal or resting energy expenditure (REE) and determining energy requirement is a fundamental of nutrition support, particularly in the situation where adjustment of...

Impact of the reduction of the recommended energy target in the ICU on protein delivery and clinical outcomes

24 February 2019
This observational cohort study over two 3 months periods aims to observe the impact of reduced recommended energy targets and the absence of ICU dietitians on nutrient prescription and clinical outcome. The most important result is that a reduction in energy target in ICU resulted in a predictable but unnoticed reduction of protein delivery. I...

Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Mortality in Healthy Men and Women

02 January 2019
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is the gold standard method for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF); Although CPX prognostic value has been firmly established in cardiovascular, pulmonary, and musculoskeletal disease patients, it is less established in apparently healthy adults. This study, published by the Journal of the American ...

Underdiagnosis and Overdiagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

15 November 2018
This Concise Clinical Review published on the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine examines the problem and the prevalence of under-diagnosis and over-diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. COPD is regarded as one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality across the world, yet its proper diagnosis remai...

Eliud Kipchoge sets new marathon world record

23 September 2018
Kenyan runner Eliud Kipchoge made history on September 16, by winning the Berlin Marathon in 2 hours 1 minute 39 seconds, confirming that is one of the best runner of the modern era. The Olympic champion broke the record set by fellow Kenyan Dennis Kimetto in 2014 by 1 minute and 18 seconds. After the race, Kipchoge, who also won in 2016 and 2...

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