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A selection of scientific articles on Cardio Pulmonary, Lung Function, Metabolism and Body Composition

The effect of indirect calorimetry guided isocaloric nutrition on mortality in critically ill patients—a systematic review and meta-analysis

15 November 2021
Indirect calorimetry (IC)-guided nutrition might positively affect the clinical outcome of critically ill patients. The objective of this study is to assess the benefit of isocaloric nutrition guided by IC, compared to hypocaloric nutrition, for critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This systematic review and meta-a...

Energy requirements of long-term ventilated COVID-19 patients with resolved SARS-CoV-2 infection

15 November 2021
COVID-19 can rapidly progress into acute respiratory distress syndrome accompanied by multi-organ failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and critical care treatment. Nutritional therapy is a fundamental pillar in the management of hospitalized patients. It is broadly acknowledged that overfeeding and underfeeding of intensive care un...

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in COVID-19 patients at 3 months follow-up

15 November 2021
Long-term effects of COVID-19 are of utmost relevance. This study aims to determine the functional capacity of COVID-19 survivors by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), the characteristics associated with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) performance and the safety and tolerability of CPET. COSMED system (Quark CPET, COSMED, Rome, It...

Nutritional management of individuals with obesity and COVID-19: ESPEN expert statements and practical guidance

15 November 2021
Among other important risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes, obesity has emerged along with undernutrition-malnutrition as a strong predictor of disease risk and severity. Obesity-related excessive body fat may lead to respiratory, metabolic and immune derangements potentially favouring the onset of COVID-19 complications. Early after the o...

Prolonged progressive hypermetabolism during COVID-19 hospitalization undetected by common predictive energy equations

06 August 2021
Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold-standard for determining measured resting energy expenditure (mREE) in critical illness. When IC is not available, predicted resting energy expenditure (pREE) equations are commonly utilized, which often inaccurately predict metabolic demands leading to over- or under-feeding. This study aims to longitudina...

Association between body composition at term equivalent age and Bayley scores at 2 years in preterm infants

24 May 2021
Premature infants often undergo postnatal growth failure and show an altered body composition (BC) at termequivalent age (TEA) with lower fat-free mass (FFM) and increased fat mass (FM) than infants born at term. Early nutrition and growth may impact brain growth. Nevertheless, the evidence relating BC and later neurodevelopment remains sparse....

Indirect calorimetry in critical illness a new standard of care?

20 May 2021
Critical illness demands objective, targeted nutritional therapy to prevent adverse effects of underfeeding/ over feeding. Thus, all recent societal guidelines recommend indirect calorimetry use to determine energy needs. Current commercially available indirect calorimeters are often inaccurate, and the inconveniences have led to significant ch...

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing during the COVID-19 pandemic

06 May 2021
The outbreak of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has presented a global public health emergency. Although predominantly a pandemic of acute respiratory disease, corona virus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19) results in multi-organ damage that impairs cardiopulmonary function and reduces cardiorespir...

Infant body composition assessment in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using air displacement plethysmography: strategies for implementation into clinical workflow

04 May 2021
Body composition is a sensitive marker of infants’ intra- and extrauterine growth quality that can influence short- and long-term outcomes; including retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), metabolic health, cardiovascular and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Low body fat percentage at birth in small and appropriate for gestat...

Point-Counterpoint: Indirect Calorimetry Is Essential for Optimal Nutrition Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit

29 April 2021
A major driver leading to the lack of emphasis on timely ICU nutrition delivery is lack of objective data to guide nutrition care. If we are to ultimately overcome current fundamental challenges to effective ICU nutrition delivery, we must all adopt routine objective, longitudinal measurement of energy targets via indirect calorimetry (IC). Key...

European Respiratory Society clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis of asthma in children aged 5–16 years

28 April 2021
A task force supported by the European Respiratory Society has recently developed the first evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis of asthma in children aged 5 to 16 years. Nine PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparator and Outcome) questions were used. The task force then developed a diagnostic algorithm based on th...

The Role of Nutrition in the COVID-19 Pandemic

31 March 2021
The current review aims to summarize the complex relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and nutritional status and the effects of malnutrition in terms of disease severity, patients’ recovery time, incidence of complications and mortality rate. In COVID-19, this relationship has shown to be crucial across the disease phases, particularly in ...

Importance of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing amongst Subjects Recovering from COVID-19

25 March 2021
The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) provides an objective assessment of ventilatory limitation, related to the exercise minute ventilation (VE) coupled to carbon dioxide output (VCO2); high values of VE/VCO2 slope define an exercise ventilatory inefficiency. This prospective study explores the methodology of CPET to evaluate pulmonary dama...

Nutritional and metabolic management of the COVID 19 intensive care patient

15 March 2021
Nutritional and metabolic disturbances are observed in patients critically ill with COVID-19. At each step of the progression of the disease, ICU patients with COVID-19 should be carefully evaluated in terms of malnutrition risk and medical nutritional support. The tremendous challenges posed by the continuous clinical changes requires adequate...

Energy delivery guided by indirect calorimetry in critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

08 March 2021
The use of indirect calorimetry (IC) is increasing due to its precision in resting energy expenditure (REE) measurement in critically ill patients. Thus, this study aim to evaluate the clinical outcomes of an IC-guided nutrition therapy compared to predictive equations strategy in such a patient population. This systemic review and meta-analysi...

Medium-term impact of COVID-19 on pulmonary function, functional capacity and quality of life

26 February 2021
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide determining a dramatic impact on the healthcare system. Aim of this study is to evaluate mid-term clinical impact of COVID-19 on respiratory function. The respiratory system is subjected to major involvement during COVID-19 also due to the hyperactive host immune response and the inflam...

ESPEN guideline on clinical nutrition in hospitalized patients with acute or chronic kidney disease

12 February 2021
Acute kidney disease (AKD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are highly prevalent among hospitalized patients and they have important metabolic and nutritional consequences. Moreover, in case of kidney replacement therapy the possible impact on nutritional profiles, substrate balance, and nutritional treatment processes cannot be neglected. The ...

Pulmonary function and radiological features four months after COVID-19: first results from the national prospective observational Swiss COVID-19 lung study

27 January 2021
This is the first European study reporting on respiratory follow-up outcomes after SARS CoV-2 infection. In this study, reduced DLCO, decreased distance of 6MWT and desaturation during 6MWT were correlated to a severely impaired COVID-19 phenotype, and importantly this relationship was not confounded by age, sex, or BMI. This findings ...

Review of evolution and current status of protein requirements and provision in acute illness and critical care

10 January 2021
This review article summarizes current evidence supporting the role of higher protein intakes, especially during the early phases of nutrition therapy in acute illness, methods for assessing protein requirements, as well as, the currently available high-protein enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions.  There is sufficient evidence (albeit li...

Maximal Time Spent at VO2max from Sprint to the Marathon

20 December 2020
The study showed that VO2max is clearly elicited in all distances from the sprint to the marathon. A fast start and the time to reach VO2max is important in increasing VO2 kinetics and to improve exercise tolerance. The K5 portable breath-by-breath sampling system was used to measure VO2 and carry out the scientific study. Human locomotion natu...

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COSMED is a world leading supplier of Cardio Pulmonary, Metabolic and Body Composition testing solutions to Sports Science, Medicine, Professional Sport and Wellness.

COSMED is a world leading supplier of Cardio Pulmonary, Metabolic and Body Composition testing solutions to Sports Science, Medicine, Professional Sport and Wellness.